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As a builder turned lumber industry representative, I've seen a lot of roof framing — some good, some not so good. It seems that houses have become larger and their roof systems more complicated. In light of this, it's worth revisiting the most common framing errors I see on both conventional and truss-framed roofs. Toe-Bearing Rafters A common error with low-slope rafters is excessive cutting of the rafter seat. This leaves the rafter bearing not on the heel of the seat cut, as it should, but on the toe (see Figure 1). The seat cut may run straight from toe to heel, or there may be a deep birdsmouth at the