A.Scale is normally the result of minerals in the water being left behind as small amounts of water evaporate. It usually consists of various calcium and magnesium salts, with some iron and sulfur compounds mixed in, depending on the local water conditions. Installing a water softener tends to reduce scale formation by exchanging sodium ions for the calcium and magnesium. These sodium compounds are more soluble and don’t build up.

Use white vinegar to remove both the scale and caked-on soap scum from old fixtures.

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