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Problem:

Exposed roofing nails.

Exposed roofing nails are sometimes a source of leaks.

Solution:

Cover exposed nail heads with a dab of roofing cement,

when exposed nails can't be avoided — as on cap shingles.
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Problem:

Excessive shingle overhang.

This installer apparently believed that increasing the overhang on the first course of shingles would help direct the water into the gutter, and would substitute for metal drip edge. Eventually, however, the shingles crease under their own weight and break off, exposing the edge of the sheathing beneath.

Solution:

Shingles should overhang 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch

beyond the metal drip, according to recommendations from the Asphalt Roof Manufacturers Association.

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Problem:

Slipping shingles.

Shingles can slip when the manufacturer's fastening instructions are not followed. Improper practices include using too few fasteners, and overdriving and underdriving the fasteners.

Solution:

Follow the shingle manufacturer's fastening instructions

as printed on the bundle wrappers.  

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Problem: The owner calls to report a roof leak. Solution: Not every leaky roof is the fault of the contractor.