As most contractors have heard by now, in November 1990, Congress increased sevenfold the maximum civil penalties that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) may impose for violations of its job safety regulations. Maximum penalty amounts for serious and other-than-serious violations increased from $1,000 to $7,000, and the maximum for willful and repeat violations increased from $10,000 to $70,000. This increased penalty authority is resulting in larger assessments by the agency. The penalties for equivalent offenses have recently run three to four times larger than those imposed before the law's amendment. Consequently, avoiding or minimizing such violations has become more important than ever. Responding to a Citation Enforcement proceedings officially start when an employer receives a "Citation and Notification of Penalty." The citation may be served by certified mail,