Before we look at the fasteners, here's a safety tip about the tools that drive them. The most important element in the use of power-actuated tools is ensuring that all your operators are adequately trained. Every U.S. manufacturer will provide this training at no cost to you, and every state requires it, but the contractor should make sure that the trainer is an authorized, licensed instructor. Several companies manufacture powder-actuated fasteners (PAFs) including ITW Ramset/Red Head. Hilti, Desa, and Speed. Of all concrete fasteners, PAFs are the fastest to install, so they probably have the lowest in-place cost of all fasteners. The most common fasteners in this category are drive pins (specially made nails) and threaded studs. Shank diameters for drive