In a significant shift of emphasis, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has adopted new policy guidelines that recognize the risk posed by rising sea levels. Set forth in a July 1, 2009, Corps of Engineers circular, the policy directs designers of civil engineering projects to consider not just historic rates of sea level rise, but also possible "intermediate" and "high" projections for rising sea levels over the next 50 years. E&E Publishing's GreenWire covers the story (" Army Corps: New policy forces project designers to consider rising seas," by Taryn Luntz), as does the Sacramento Bee ("Delta levee projects must now prepare for rising sea level," by Matt Weiser). "There is no grandfathering," said Corps official Kathleen White. "It's going to apply to everything. We are going to have to undergo a large effort to evaluate our projects to see what this guidance may mean to them." Design modifications could include spending more now to fortify public works against the risk of high-range flood predictions. Or, projects might be designed to easily allow future modifications in the event the more dire forecasts come to pass. Said Corps official Jeffrey Gebert, who participated in drafting the new policy, "You don't want to make stupid large investments that are difficult or impossible to undo."